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环境中甲醛的主要污染来源是有机合成

网址:www.globalchunxi.com时间:2024-03-27 15:47:36(部分内容来源于网络,不代表本站观点)

甲醛在环境中颇稳定,当水中甲醛浓度为5mg/L时(20℃),观察结果表明,5天内可以保持恒定。水中甲醛浓度为<20mg/L时,可以被曝气池中经驯化的微生物降解消化。而含量为100mg/L时,能抑制微生物对有机物的氧化。当水中甲醛含量为500mg/L时,生物耗氧过程全部中止,水中微生物被杀死。
Formaldehyde is quite stable in the environment. When the concentration of formaldehyde in water is 5mg/L (20 ℃), the observation results show that it can remain constant for 5 days. When the concentration of formaldehyde in water is<20mg/L, it can be degraded and digested by domesticated microorganisms in the aeration tank. When the content is 100mg/L, it can inhibit the oxidation of organic matter by microorganisms. When the formaldehyde content in water is 500mg/L, the biological oxygen consumption process is completely stopped and the microorganisms in the water are killed.
2、代谢和降解:环境中甲醛的主要污染来源是有机合成、化工、合成纤维、染料、木材加工及制漆等行业排放的废水、废气等。某些有机化合物在环境中降解也产生甲醛,如氯乙烯的降解产物也包含甲醛。由于甲醛有强的还原性,在有氧化性物质存在条件下,能被氧化为甲酸。例如进入水体环境中的甲醛可被腐生菌氧化分解,因而能消耗水中的溶解氧。甲酸进一步的分解产物为二氧化碳和水。进入环境中的甲醛在物理、化学和生物等的共同作用下,被逐渐稀释氧化和降解。甲醛的氧化降解过程如下
2. Metabolism and degradation: The main sources of formaldehyde pollution in the environment are wastewater and exhaust emissions from industries such as organic synthesis, chemical industry, synthetic fibers, dyes, wood processing, and paint making. Some organic compounds also produce formaldehyde when degraded in the environment, such as the degradation products of vinyl chloride, which also contain formaldehyde. Due to its strong reducibility, formaldehyde can be oxidized to formic acid in the presence of oxidizing substances. For example, formaldehyde entering the water environment can be oxidized and decomposed by saprophytic bacteria, thus consuming dissolved oxygen in the water. The further decomposition products of formic acid are carbon dioxide and water. Formaldehyde entering the environment is gradually diluted, oxidized, and degraded under the combined effects of physics, chemistry, and biology. The oxidation degradation process of formaldehyde is as follows

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