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环境中甲醛的主要污染来源是有机合成

网址:www.globalchunxi.com时间:2024-03-14 14:29:02(部分内容来源于网络,不代表本站观点)

环境中甲醛的主要污染来源是有机合成、化工、合成纤维、染料、木材加工及制漆等行业排放的废水、废气等。某些有机化合物在环境中降解也产生甲醛,如氯乙烯的降解产物也包含甲醛。由于甲醛有强的还原性,在有氧化性物质存在条件下,能被氧化为甲酸。例如进入水体环境中的甲醛可被腐生菌氧化分解,因而能消耗水中的溶解氧。甲酸进一步的分解产物为二氧化碳和水。进入环境中的甲醛在物理、化学和生物等的共同作用下,被逐渐稀释氧化和降解。甲醛的氧化降解过程如下:
2. Metabolism and degradation: The main sources of formaldehyde pollution in the environment are wastewater and exhaust emissions from industries such as organic synthesis, chemical industry, synthetic fibers, dyes, wood processing, and paint making. Some organic compounds also produce formaldehyde when degraded in the environment, such as the degradation products of vinyl chloride, which also contain formaldehyde. Due to its strong reducibility, formaldehyde can be oxidized to formic acid in the presence of oxidizing substances. For example, formaldehyde entering the water environment can be oxidized and decomposed by saprophytic bacteria, thus consuming dissolved oxygen in the water. The further decomposition products of formic acid are carbon dioxide and water. Formaldehyde entering the environment is gradually diluted, oxidized, and degraded under the combined effects of physics, chemistry, and biology. The oxidation degradation process of formaldehyde is as follows:
3、迁移转化:甲醛由于沸点低又易溶于水,所以主要通过大气和水排放进入环境。生产甲醛的工厂其未处理的气体,当排放高度为18米时,其距工厂250-500米的大气样品中,甲醛含量均在0.035mg/m³以上
3. Migration and conversion: Formaldehyde, due to its low boiling point and easy solubility in water, is mainly discharged into the environment through the atmosphere and water. The untreated gas from factories that produce formaldehyde, when discharged at an altitude of 18 meters, has a formaldehyde content of 0.035mg/m in the atmospheric sample 250-500 meters away from the factory ³ more than

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